English Church Architecture.
This website was last updated in April 2013. The number of churches currently featured is 571.
Please see below for notes about this website.
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St. Leonard's, Scorborough, East Riding of Yorkshire, seen from the south.
Any study of a subject like church architecture which is undertaken seriously should include an assessment of its scope and limitations. This web-site, therefore, presents some of the notes made and photographs taken by an amateur architectural historian and church visitor for the last thirty-five years, and while every reasonable effort has been made to make the notes rigorous and consistent, it would be idle to imagine that other interpretations of the building histories of the churches included are not sometimes possible, or even that all their descriptions are invariably accurate in every particular, for while all the churches have been examined by the writer both outside and in, “field trips” have generally only been followed up by study along the more accessible avenues of documentary research and, inevitably, sometimes even the conditions under which a visit was made were not ideal. It is difficult, for example, to examine closely a high nave roof from the ground on a dull day and it is all too easy to record a complex moulding or an elaborate funerary monument incorrectly while making an internal circuit of a large building followed by an impatient key holder, especially as there is then not usually the opportunity to go back to check one’s facts afterwards.
That said, it is, of course, my hope in presenting this website, that the notes on the few hundred churches it contains may prove at least a useful, additional source of reference for those who wish to examine them more closely, and that they may sometimes offer alternative interpretations of their history of construction, worthy of consideration, for I have certainly not hesitated to disagree with other writers, however distinguished, when I have felt so inclined. Inevitably this means Pevsner in particular, which is, perhaps, a little unfair considering that it was his “Buildings of England” series that introduced me to church visiting in the first place and which taught me everything I knew in the late 1970s as I made my way round all the churches of Cambridgeshire, a county that had then recently swallowed up neighbouring Huntingdonshire and Peterborough (under the Local Government Act of 1974). Pevsner’s own church visiting in the 1950s and '60s, however, was necessarily sometimes a very hurried affair, and for churches in the Perpendicular style - a style which in the widest sense might be considered to have predominated throughout the long period from the Black Death of 1349 to the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1534 - there was hardly even a fully worked out methodology for their description at the time, never mind their accurate dating, which were subjects that had to await publication of the late Dr. John Harvey's seminal work, most notably in "The Perpendicular Style" of 1978. Pevsner’s writing also suffered sometimes from a lack of consistency as, for example, when he ascribed the same architectural feature to one date here and to another somewhere else, without offering any reason for the discrepancy. Even so, such criticisms should certainly not be allowed to gainsay his astonishing achievements, and Harvey, like a number of other later writers, was surely not as generous to Pevsner as he should have been, not only because Pevsner’s work was prodigious in its extent, but also because it was often extremely insightful. It is thus only with trepidation that I ever choose to disagree with him, even though that never quite prevents me from doing so when I feel so inclined.
However, perhaps an even greater risk I have run in these notes has been to pass judgement on buildings (often Victorian ones) on purely artistic grounds, for in something that is ultimately subjective, it is also more difficult, of course, to construct an argument in one’s support, and I am acutely aware that the church has yet to be erected that does not command the devotion of at least some of its parishioners or which does not have “Lovely old building” and “Peace, perfect peace” written somewhere in its visitors’ book. That this, again, has not stopped me doing so is partly because to describe everything in these notes in positive or admiring terms would go a long way towards rendering them meaningless, and also because to fail to draw attention to the difference in quality between the work of an architect like William Butterfield, on the one hand, and, say, Ewan Christian or William Ranger on the other, would be to show no discernment whatever. Nevertheless, though entries may sometimes be influenced by personal opinion, they are, I believe, at least free of anecdote, and the reader will search this website in vain for stories about the vagaries of churchwardens or the hazards of travelling by bicycle.
The churches described below are listed under their respective counties and can be accessed directly. Each entry is dated and the site is updated monthly, with entries added in the last six months being marked as new in ORANGE. However, existing entries are also subject to regular revision, and these are not generally marked due to the difficulty of distinguishing between major and minor amendments, and entries where the only change made is in the addition of new photographs.
The gazetteer is accompanied by three appendices, of which the first is an index of artists mentioned by name and the third is a glossary of architectural terms, the usage of some of which varies between authors. The second is a list of some close-dated architectural features I have described, which it is sometimes useful to have before one when trying to reconstruct the building history of another church nearby for which only stylistic evidence is available for dating. Even so, it is important to recognize that this is not a perfect modus operandi either and that even consistency is an objective that can be pursued too far. Many mediaeval churches in England were constructed by masons told simply to build “as good as” or “better than” the people in the next parish, and although many folk in those days lived and died in the village in which they were born, it is fallacious to believe the same was necessarily also true of highly skilled masons. Thus an architectural feature had only to be introduced in one place for it to be entirely within the bounds of possibility thereafter for it to crop up anywhere, at any time.
A Note on Copyright: This website is entirely non-commercial and although all notes and photographs contained within it are copyright, I have no objection to parochial church councils making whatever use they may wish of the entries for their respective churches, should that be helpful, provided the source is acknowledged. Please note, however, that except for the quotation of short passages for architectural analysis, material may only otherwise be copied from these notes for private study or similar strictly non-commercial reasons, and in these cases also, this website must be attributed. I have, of course, tried scrupulously to ensure that I, in my turn, have acknowledged all sources on which I have drawn for criticism or analysis.
Contact Details: Readers wishing to pass on comments, corrections or criticisms of this website, or to request the inclusion of other churches, may do so by telephone on 01449-736121. Subject to constraints of time and geography, I may sometimes be available, free of charge, to help parochial church councils with the production of church guides or in conducting local church tours where the purpose is to raise money for church fabric funds.
C. P. Canfield.